Poker Card History
Poker is also called playing cards. Its origins come from a variety of claims, the most recognized of which is that cards first appeared in China, at least in 969 AD. At that time, a pair of cards in China had four suits, each with 14 cards, used as both banknotes and cards. There is a legend that there is a Venetian who brought cards back to his hometown from China, so Venice is the first place in Europe to have playing cards. This Venetian traveler, probably Nikoro Polo, returned to Venice with China from his brother, Madio, in 1269, or may be the son of Nikolo, the famous Marco Polo. When his father and uncle went to China for the second time, he followed them.
Some authorities believe that India is more likely than China to be the origin of cards. It has been suggested that there is a certain connection between the early European cards (Tarot) and the goddess Ardhanari in Hindu mythology. The image of the goddess has four hands, each holding a wand, a cup, a sword and a ring (representing money). In some early European cards, similar patterns were printed. There is a saying that the cards are made in Europe by the Gypsies who might have been an Indian nation. They crossed Persia, Arabia and entered Egypt, and Egypt arrived in Europe. Some of them, about 100 people, entered Paris in 1427.
As early as the 14th century or earlier, many places in Europe, famous for Nuremberg, Augsburg and Ulm, have produced cards. The Italian Tarot (TAROT) may be earlier than the German card: in the Italian document of the year 1299, the Tarot card has been mentioned. The Duchess of Brabant, Johanna, had taught cards in the Netherlands in 1379 and had cards in Spain at least in 1371. It may be that the Moors or the Saracens took the cards from Spain to Italy, but the attempt to explain the similarity between the Spanish naipes of the card and the Arabic nabi did not succeed.
In 1392, King Charles VI of France ordered Yaquim Greene to hand-paint a pair of cards. This historical fact caused the emergence of the saying that the card originated in France. But what is clearly visible is that the deck of cards that Fawang ordered to draw is just a card that is similar to other used cards. At that time, the Royal Treasurer, who was responsible for paying the money, had said that there were three decks of cards, printed in "golden and various colors, with a lot of decorations, which meant that our King had his entertainment." 17 of them The existing card is displayed at the French National Library.
The time when cards were passed to Britain was later than that of other European countries. José died in 1400. Although he had been counting various entertainment activities at the time, he never mentioned cards: "They dance, they play chess and banquets." About Edward I wearing four costumes with cuffs to play four The information of Wang (k)'s game almost certainly refers to some other game, perhaps some form of chess. The earliest mention of the time for British playing cards was in 1465, when British poker makers applied to Edward IV for bans on the importation of foreign-made Zach cards, and there was an appropriate decree to support.
CP Hagravi wrote in his book "The History of Playing Cards": "There is a legend about Columbus and his sailors, saying that these sailors love gambling when they are sly and mysterious. When the sea was hit by a storm, they threw all their playing cards into the sea because of the horror caused by superstition. Later, after they arrived on land, they regretted this reckless action, so they were here. In the new kingdom, some cards were made with a kind of playing cards. These cards have aroused great interest from the Indians." Materials by Serra S. Dena Vega (Florida History ")), said the Spanish soldiers in the 1534 expedition, playing cards with leather cards. This statement does not seem to be just a legend. Mexicans had a card game very early, when Mexicans called amapa-tolli, where amapa means paper, and tolli means game.
The modern form of fifty-two cards, divided into two red suits and two black suits, is probably derived from the early Italian Tarot (TAROT): Tarot There are four suits, each with 10 or fewer small cards (SPOT CARDS) and 4 head cards: King (K), Hou (Q) and Cavaliers and Guards. After the early days of playing cards, some of the modern playing cards were still replaced by the Warriors. The guards were printed in the shape of various male servants (VALET), but the name of the guard was still retained, but it has been renamed J (JACK) in modern usage. In the 52-card deck of cards, the Cavaliers are no longer used, and they are used as head cards.
Chinese solitaires are quite different from Western solitaires; Chinese solitaires are narrow and long, usually 2 to 2.5 inches long and 0.5 to 2 inches wide, and early cards are even narrower and longer. In terms of number of cards and suits, Chinese and Indian solitaires are very different from Western poker cards. There is an Indian card, a pair of 144 cards, divided into 8 suits, each suit 18 cards; another Indian fine card for each pair of 120 cards, divided into 10 suits, each suit 12 cards. There is a Chinese card, a pair of only 30 cards, divided into 3 suits, 9 suits per suit, and 3 cards with great power; but generally there are 4 suits.
The early design of the pattern was completely determined by the artist's skill in carving the woodblock. Later, the pattern gradually changed from representing a recognized figure or thing to an unintentional figure. There have been legends that Henry VIII is a model of four K's patterns; the four old K's portraits of the oldest British playing cards have the same curly beards that are separated from Henry VIII and are separated from each other. Bearded. It is also said that the model of the portrait pattern on the four Qs is probably the Queen Elizabeth of the York Dynasty, the Queen of Henry VII. The design of the portrait pattern on the head cards of the rest of the people is obviously following the portrait pattern of playing cards made in Lyon, France. Although the portraits are different, they can still be seen in terms of customs, position of the hand, and weapons held. of.
The manufacture of French playing cards has been developed along the lines of individual manufacturers. By 1813, the government issued an officially approved design, giving each person a name, and until today there are still many cards that use this name. :
Spades, red peach, square
K David Charles Alexander Caesar
Q Pallas Judith Rachel A Jinni
J. Hogil LaHale Hector Lancelot
Among them, the spades K David was the father of the Israeli king Solomon in the 10th century BC. He used the harp to play and wrote many hymns in the Bible. The Spades Q Pallas is the Greek god of wisdom and war, the only queen of the four queens holding weapons. Spades J. Hogil is the attendant of Charles I (red peach K). The red peach K Charlie I is the only king of the four K who does not have a beard. The red peach Q is the queen of Judith. The red peach J La Haier is the attendant of Charles VII. Block K Caesar is the king of the Roman Empire and the only one of the four kings. Box J Hector is the attendant of Charles I. Plum K Alexander was the first Macedonian king to conquer the world. His clothes were always worn with a cross with a cross. The word "Argine" is derived from the letter of the Queen by Regina. She holds a rose flower and says that the British Lancaster and the white rose are marked by red roses. After the war, the Queen of York, who was marked by flowers, finally reconciled and put the roses of both sides together. Plum J Lanslow is the knight in the story of King Arthur.
In the Hungarian playing cards, there are eight portraits on the head cards, representing the eight characters in Schiller's Swiss-based script "William Tell". But this kind of playing cards has never been used in Switzerland.
There are no Qs in German common playing cards, but there are two Js. And some German poker cards have 4 head cards for each suit, A-K-J-J. In the Trebola playing cards (Western and Italian), replace the Queen's image on Q with a rider on the horse.
The internationally popular poker colors are Spade, Heart, Club and Diamond, the most common ones that first appeared in France. Some Western countries traditionally have slightly different poker designs. Among them, Germany is a red heart, leaves, bells and acorns, Switzerland is a shield, flowers, bells and acorns, and Italy is a sword, a glass, a coin and a stick.
Italian flowers first appeared in Italy and Spain. They are the most common colors except for ordinary colors. Most western countries have printed them, including countries with their own special color poker such as Germany and Switzerland.
German flowers are mainly popular in Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and other countries. The popularity of Swiss poker is relatively narrow, mainly in Switzerland, but other countries also have a small amount of printing, which was printed in Russia at the beginning of the last century.
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